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Ancient egypt

ancient egypt

Background —. Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the. 1. Dez. The oldest known balances are equal-armed instruments that have been found in Egypt and are represented on Egyptian drawings and reliefs. This book is the first economic history of ancient Egypt covering the entire pharaonic period, –30 BCE, and employing a New Institutional Economics. Egyptian MysteriesCrossroad - New York, emotion casino The fourth case showed a well-healed trans-metatarsal amputation of both feet. Transpersonale PsychologieSchibli - Doppler - Schweiz, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology - London, 32,pp. Published online Nov Modified from Davies

The slaughter of a fattened ox was also a central part of an offering ritual. Camels, although known from the New Kingdom, were not used as beasts of burden until the Late Period.

There is also evidence to suggest that elephants were briefly utilized in the Late Period but largely abandoned due to lack of grazing land.

Herodotus observed that the Egyptians were the only people to keep their animals with them in their houses. Egypt is rich in building and decorative stone, copper and lead ores, gold, and semiprecious stones.

These natural resources allowed the ancient Egyptians to build monuments, sculpt statues, make tools, and fashion jewelry. There were extensive gold mines in Nubia , and one of the first maps known is of a gold mine in this region.

The Wadi Hammamat was a notable source of granite, greywacke , and gold. Flint was the first mineral collected and used to make tools, and flint handaxes are the earliest pieces of evidence of habitation in the Nile valley.

Nodules of the mineral were carefully flaked to make blades and arrowheads of moderate hardness and durability even after copper was adopted for this purpose.

The Egyptians worked deposits of the lead ore galena at Gebel Rosas to make net sinkers, plumb bobs, and small figurines. Copper was the most important metal for toolmaking in ancient Egypt and was smelted in furnaces from malachite ore mined in the Sinai.

Iron deposits found in upper Egypt were utilized in the Late Period. Deposits of decorative stones such as porphyry , greywacke, alabaster , and carnelian dotted the eastern desert and were collected even before the First Dynasty.

The ancient Egyptians engaged in trade with their foreign neighbors to obtain rare, exotic goods not found in Egypt.

In the Predynastic Period , they established trade with Nubia to obtain gold and incense. They also established trade with Palestine, as evidenced by Palestinian-style oil jugs found in the burials of the First Dynasty pharaohs.

By the Second Dynasty at latest, ancient Egyptian trade with Byblos yielded a critical source of quality timber not found in Egypt.

By the Fifth Dynasty, trade with Punt provided gold, aromatic resins, ebony, ivory, and wild animals such as monkeys and baboons.

The ancient Egyptians prized the blue stone lapis lazuli , which had to be imported from far-away Afghanistan. The Egyptian language is a northern Afro-Asiatic language closely related to the Berber and Semitic languages.

Ancient Egyptian was a synthetic language , but it became more analytic later on. Late Egyptian developed prefixal definite and indefinite articles , which replaced the older inflectional suffixes.

There was a change from the older verb—subject—object word order to subject—verb—object. Coptic is still used in the liturgy of the Egyptian Orthodox Church , and traces of it are found in modern Egyptian Arabic.

Ancient Egyptian has 25 consonants similar to those of other Afro-Asiatic languages. These include pharyngeal and emphatic consonants, voiced and voiceless stops, voiceless fricatives and voiced and voiceless affricates.

It has three long and three short vowels, which expanded in Late Egyptian to about nine. Suffixes are added to form words. The verb conjugation corresponds to the person.

If the subject is a noun, suffixes are not added to the verb: Adjectives are derived from nouns through a process that Egyptologists call nisbation because of its similarity with Arabic.

Hieroglyphic writing dates from c. A hieroglyph can represent a word, a sound, or a silent determinative; and the same symbol can serve different purposes in different contexts.

Hieroglyphs were a formal script, used on stone monuments and in tombs, that could be as detailed as individual works of art. In day-to-day writing, scribes used a cursive form of writing, called hieratic , which was quicker and easier.

While formal hieroglyphs may be read in rows or columns in either direction though typically written from right to left , hieratic was always written from right to left, usually in horizontal rows.

A new form of writing, Demotic , became the prevalent writing style, and it is this form of writing—along with formal hieroglyphs—that accompany the Greek text on the Rosetta Stone.

Around the first century AD, the Coptic alphabet started to be used alongside the Demotic script. Coptic is a modified Greek alphabet with the addition of some Demotic signs.

As the traditional religious establishments were disbanded, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was mostly lost. Writing first appeared in association with kingship on labels and tags for items found in royal tombs.

It was primarily an occupation of the scribes, who worked out of the Per Ankh institution or the House of Life. The latter comprised offices, libraries called House of Books , laboratories and observatories.

Late Egyptian was spoken from the New Kingdom onward and is represented in Ramesside administrative documents, love poetry and tales, as well as in Demotic and Coptic texts.

During this period, the tradition of writing had evolved into the tomb autobiography, such as those of Harkhuf and Weni. The genre known as Sebayt "instructions" was developed to communicate teachings and guidance from famous nobles; the Ipuwer papyrus , a poem of lamentations describing natural disasters and social upheaval, is a famous example.

The former tells the story of a noble who is robbed on his way to buy cedar from Lebanon and of his struggle to return to Egypt.

Many stories written in demotic during the Greco-Roman period were set in previous historical eras, when Egypt was an independent nation ruled by great pharaohs such as Ramesses II.

Most ancient Egyptians were farmers tied to the land. Their dwellings were restricted to immediate family members, and were constructed of mud-brick designed to remain cool in the heat of the day.

Each home had a kitchen with an open roof, which contained a grindstone for milling grain and a small oven for baking the bread.

Floors were covered with reed mats, while wooden stools, beds raised from the floor and individual tables comprised the furniture.

The ancient Egyptians placed a great value on hygiene and appearance. Most bathed in the Nile and used a pasty soap made from animal fat and chalk.

Men shaved their entire bodies for cleanliness; perfumes and aromatic ointments covered bad odors and soothed skin. Children went without clothing until maturity, at about age 12, and at this age males were circumcised and had their heads shaved.

Music and dance were popular entertainments for those who could afford them. Early instruments included flutes and harps, while instruments similar to trumpets, oboes, and pipes developed later and became popular.

In the New Kingdom, the Egyptians played on bells, cymbals, tambourines, drums, and imported lutes and lyres from Asia.

The ancient Egyptians enjoyed a variety of leisure activities, including games and music. Senet , a board game where pieces moved according to random chance, was particularly popular from the earliest times; another similar game was mehen , which had a circular gaming board.

The first complete set of this game was discovered from a Theban tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhat IV that dates to the 13th Dynasty.

The excavation of the workers village of Deir el-Medina has resulted in one of the most thoroughly documented accounts of community life in the ancient world, which spans almost four hundred years.

There is no comparable site in which the organization, social interactions, working and living conditions of a community have been studied in such detail.

Egyptian cuisine remained remarkably stable over time; indeed, the cuisine of modern Egypt retains some striking similarities to the cuisine of the ancients.

The staple diet consisted of bread and beer, supplemented with vegetables such as onions and garlic, and fruit such as dates and figs.

Wine and meat were enjoyed by all on feast days while the upper classes indulged on a more regular basis. Fish, meat, and fowl could be salted or dried, and could be cooked in stews or roasted on a grill.

The architecture of ancient Egypt includes some of the most famous structures in the world: Building projects were organized and funded by the state for religious and commemorative purposes, but also to reinforce the wide-ranging power of the pharaoh.

The ancient Egyptians were skilled builders; using only simple but effective tools and sighting instruments, architects could build large stone structures with great accuracy and precision that is still envied today.

The domestic dwellings of elite and ordinary Egyptians alike were constructed from perishable materials such as mud bricks and wood, and have not survived.

Peasants lived in simple homes, while the palaces of the elite and the pharaoh were more elaborate structures. A few surviving New Kingdom palaces, such as those in Malkata and Amarna , show richly decorated walls and floors with scenes of people, birds, water pools, deities and geometric designs.

The earliest preserved ancient Egyptian temples , such as those at Giza, consist of single, enclosed halls with roof slabs supported by columns.

The step pyramid of Djoser is a series of stone mastabas stacked on top of each other. Pyramids were built during the Old and Middle Kingdoms, but most later rulers abandoned them in favor of less conspicuous rock-cut tombs.

The ancient Egyptians produced art to serve functional purposes. For over years, artists adhered to artistic forms and iconography that were developed during the Old Kingdom, following a strict set of principles that resisted foreign influence and internal change.

Images and text were intimately interwoven on tomb and temple walls, coffins, stelae, and even statues. The Narmer Palette , for example, displays figures that can also be read as hieroglyphs.

Ancient Egyptian artisans used stone as a medium for carving statues and fine reliefs, but used wood as a cheap and easily carved substitute.

Paints were obtained from minerals such as iron ores red and yellow ochres , copper ores blue and green , soot or charcoal black , and limestone white.

Paints could be mixed with gum arabic as a binder and pressed into cakes, which could be moistened with water when needed.

Pharaohs used reliefs to record victories in battle, royal decrees, and religious scenes. Common citizens had access to pieces of funerary art , such as shabti statues and books of the dead, which they believed would protect them in the afterlife.

In an attempt to duplicate the activities of the living in the afterlife, these models show laborers, houses, boats, and even military formations that are scale representations of the ideal ancient Egyptian afterlife.

Despite the homogeneity of ancient Egyptian art, the styles of particular times and places sometimes reflected changing cultural or political attitudes.

Beliefs in the divine and in the afterlife were ingrained in ancient Egyptian civilization from its inception; pharaonic rule was based on the divine right of kings.

The Egyptian pantheon was populated by gods who had supernatural powers and were called on for help or protection.

However, the gods were not always viewed as benevolent, and Egyptians believed they had to be appeased with offerings and prayers.

The structure of this pantheon changed continually as new deities were promoted in the hierarchy, but priests made no effort to organize the diverse and sometimes conflicting myths and stories into a coherent system.

At the center of the temple was the cult statue in a shrine. Temples were not places of public worship or congregation, and only on select feast days and celebrations was a shrine carrying the statue of the god brought out for public worship.

Common citizens could worship private statues in their homes, and amulets offered protection against the forces of chaos. As a result, priests developed a system of oracles to communicate the will of the gods directly to the people.

The Egyptians believed that every human being was composed of physical and spiritual parts or aspects. After death, the spiritual aspects were released from the body and could move at will, but they required the physical remains or a substitute, such as a statue as a permanent home.

The ultimate goal of the deceased was to rejoin his ka and ba and become one of the "blessed dead", living on as an akh , or "effective one".

For this to happen, the deceased had to be judged worthy in a trial, in which the heart was weighed against a " feather of truth. The ancient Egyptians maintained an elaborate set of burial customs that they believed were necessary to ensure immortality after death.

These customs involved preserving the body by mummification , performing burial ceremonies, and interring with the body goods the deceased would use in the afterlife.

The arid, desert conditions were a boon throughout the history of ancient Egypt for burials of the poor, who could not afford the elaborate burial preparations available to the elite.

Wealthier Egyptians began to bury their dead in stone tombs and use artificial mummification, which involved removing the internal organs , wrapping the body in linen, and burying it in a rectangular stone sarcophagus or wooden coffin.

Beginning in the Fourth Dynasty, some parts were preserved separately in canopic jars. By the New Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians had perfected the art of mummification; the best technique took 70 days and involved removing the internal organs, removing the brain through the nose, and desiccating the body in a mixture of salts called natron.

The body was then wrapped in linen with protective amulets inserted between layers and placed in a decorated anthropoid coffin.

Mummies of the Late Period were also placed in painted cartonnage mummy cases. Actual preservation practices declined during the Ptolemaic and Roman eras, while greater emphasis was placed on the outer appearance of the mummy, which was decorated.

Wealthy Egyptians were buried with larger quantities of luxury items, but all burials, regardless of social status, included goods for the deceased.

Funerary texts were often included in the grave, and, beginning in the New Kingdom, so were shabti statues that were believed to perform manual labor for them in the afterlife.

After burial, living relatives were expected to occasionally bring food to the tomb and recite prayers on behalf of the deceased.

The military protected mining expeditions to the Sinai during the Old Kingdom and fought civil wars during the First and Second Intermediate Periods.

The military was responsible for maintaining fortifications along important trade routes, such as those found at the city of Buhen on the way to Nubia.

Forts also were constructed to serve as military bases, such as the fortress at Sile, which was a base of operations for expeditions to the Levant. In the New Kingdom, a series of pharaohs used the standing Egyptian army to attack and conquer Kush and parts of the Levant.

Typical military equipment included bows and arrows , spears, and round-topped shields made by stretching animal skin over a wooden frame.

In the New Kingdom, the military began using chariots that had earlier been introduced by the Hyksos invaders.

Weapons and armor continued to improve after the adoption of bronze: In technology, medicine, and mathematics, ancient Egypt achieved a relatively high standard of productivity and sophistication.

Traditional empiricism , as evidenced by the Edwin Smith and Ebers papyri c. The Egyptians created their own alphabet and decimal system.

Even before the Old Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians had developed a glassy material known as faience , which they treated as a type of artificial semi-precious stone.

Faience is a non-clay ceramic made of silica , small amounts of lime and soda , and a colorant, typically copper. Several methods can be used to create faience, but typically production involved application of the powdered materials in the form of a paste over a clay core, which was then fired.

By a related technique, the ancient Egyptians produced a pigment known as Egyptian Blue , also called blue frit, which is produced by fusing or sintering silica, copper, lime, and an alkali such as natron.

The product can be ground up and used as a pigment. The ancient Egyptians could fabricate a wide variety of objects from glass with great skill, but it is not clear whether they developed the process independently.

However, they did have technical expertise in making objects, as well as adding trace elements to control the color of the finished glass.

A range of colors could be produced, including yellow, red, green, blue, purple, and white, and the glass could be made either transparent or opaque.

The medical problems of the ancient Egyptians stemmed directly from their environment. Living and working close to the Nile brought hazards from malaria and debilitating schistosomiasis parasites, which caused liver and intestinal damage.

Dangerous wildlife such as crocodiles and hippos were also a common threat. The lifelong labors of farming and building put stress on the spine and joints, and traumatic injuries from construction and warfare all took a significant toll on the body.

The grit and sand from stone-ground flour abraded teeth, leaving them susceptible to abscesses though caries were rare. The diets of the wealthy were rich in sugars, which promoted periodontal disease.

Ancient Egyptian physicians were renowned in the ancient Near East for their healing skills, and some, such as Imhotep , remained famous long after their deaths.

Medical papyri show empirical knowledge of anatomy, injuries, and practical treatments. Wounds were treated by bandaging with raw meat, white linen, sutures, nets, pads, and swabs soaked with honey to prevent infection, [] while opium thyme and belladona were used to relieve pain.

The earliest records of burn treatment describe burn dressings that use the milk from mothers of male babies.

Combined with growing demographic pressures, a significant rise in sea levels could turn millions of Egyptians into environmental refugees by the end of the 21st century, according to some climate experts.

Egypt signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 9 June , and became a party to the convention on 2 June The plan stated that the following numbers of species of different groups had been recorded from Egypt: For some major groups, for example lichen-forming fungi and nematode worms, the number was not known.

Apart from small and well-studied groups like amphibians, birds, fish, mammals and reptiles, the many of those numbers are likely to increase as further species are recorded from Egypt.

For the fungi, including lichen-forming species, for example, subsequent work has shown that over species have been recorded from Egypt, and the final figure of all fungi actually occurring in the country is expected to be much higher.

The House of Representatives , whose members are elected to serve five-year terms, specialises in legislation. Elections were last held between November and January which was later dissolved.

Official figures showed a turnout of 25,, or After a wave of public discontent with autocratic excesses of the Muslim Brotherhood government of President Mohamed Morsi , [94] on 3 July then- General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi announced the removal of Morsi from office and the suspension of the constitution.

A member constitution committee was formed for modifying the constitution which was later published for public voting and was adopted on 18 January In , Freedom House rated political rights in Egypt at 5 with 1 representing the most free and 7 the least , and civil liberties at 5, which gave it the freedom rating of "Partly Free".

Egyptian nationalism predates its Arab counterpart by many decades, having roots in the 19th century and becoming the dominant mode of expression of Egyptian anti-colonial activists and intellectuals until the early 20th century.

Egypt has the oldest continuous parliamentary tradition in the Arab world. It was disbanded as a result of the British occupation of , and the British allowed only a consultative body to sit.

The legal system is based on Islamic and civil law particularly Napoleonic codes ; and judicial review by a Supreme Court, which accepts compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction only with reservations.

Islamic jurisprudence is the principal source of legislation. Sharia courts and qadis are run and licensed by the Ministry of Justice.

On 26 December , the Muslim Brotherhood attempted to institutionalise a controversial new constitution.

The Penal code was unique as it contains a " Blasphemy Law. Several Americans and Canadians were sentenced to death in On 18 January , the interim government successfully institutionalised a more secular constitution.

The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights is one of the longest-standing bodies for the defence of human rights in Egypt.

Subsequently, Italy withdrew its ambassador to Egypt. Egyptian law enforcement produced conflicting information on the fate of the Italian citizen, which was unacceptable to Italian investigators.

As a result, the Italian press and foreign ministry pointed at the systematic human right violations in Egypt, and threatened with political sanctions unless police leadership and practices undergo significant revisions.

Coptic Christians face discrimination at multiple levels of the government, ranging from disproportionate representation in government ministries to laws that limit their ability to build or repair churches.

Egypt actively practices capital punishment. Sentenced supporters of former President Mohamed Morsi will be executed for their alleged role in violence following his ousting in July The judgment was condemned as a violation of international law.

After Morsi was ousted by the military, the judiciary system aligned itself with the new government, actively supporting the repression of Muslim Brotherhood members.

This resulted in a sharp increase in mass death sentences that arose criticism from then-U. In Cairo was voted the most dangerous megacity for women with more than 10 million inhabitants in a poll by Thomson Reuters Foundation.

Sexual harassment was described as occurring on a daily basis. The military is influential in the political and economic life of Egypt and exempts itself from laws that apply to other sectors.

It enjoys considerable power, prestige and independence within the state and has been widely considered part of the Egyptian " deep state ".

The Egyptian military has dozens of factories manufacturing weapons as well as consumer goods. Equipment from the former Soviet Union is being progressively replaced by more modern US, French, and British equipment, a significant portion of which is built under license in Egypt, such as the M1 Abrams tank.

Relations with China have also improved considerably. In , Egypt and China established a bilateral "comprehensive strategic partnership".

This position is currently held by former foreign minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit. Gulf monarchies, including the United Arab Emirates [] and Saudi Arabia , [] have pledged billions of dollars to help Egypt overcome its economic difficulties since the July coup.

Following the war and the subsequent peace treaty, Egypt became the first Arab nation to establish diplomatic relations with Israel.

Despite that, Israel is still widely considered as a hostile state by the majority of Egyptians. It is also a member of the Organisation internationale de la francophonie , since In , Egypt was estimated to have two million African refugees, including over 20, Sudanese nationals registered with UNHCR as refugees fleeing armed conflict or asylum seekers.

Egypt adopted "harsh, sometimes lethal" methods of border control. Egypt is divided into 27 governorates. The governorates are further divided into regions.

The regions contain towns and villages. Each governorate has a capital, sometimes carrying the same name as the governorate. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honoured place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt.

A rapidly growing population, limited arable land , and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress the economy.

The government has invested in communications and physical infrastructure. Egypt has a developed energy market based on coal, oil, natural gas , and hydro power.

Substantial coal deposits in the northeast Sinai are mined at the rate of about , tonnes , long tons ; , short tons per year. Oil and gas are produced in the western desert regions, the Gulf of Suez , and the Nile Delta.

In , the Egyptian General Petroleum Co EGPC said the country will cut exports of natural gas and tell major industries to slow output this summer to avoid an energy crisis and stave off political unrest, Reuters has reported.

Egypt is counting on top liquid natural gas LNG exporter Qatar to obtain additional gas volumes in summer, while encouraging factories to plan their annual maintenance for those months of peak demand, said EGPC chairman, Tarek El Barkatawy.

Egypt produces its own energy, but has been a net oil importer since and is rapidly becoming a net importer of natural gas.

Economic conditions have started to improve considerably, after a period of stagnation, due to the adoption of more liberal economic policies by the government as well as increased revenues from tourism and a booming stock market.

In its annual report, the International Monetary Fund IMF has rated Egypt as one of the top countries in the world undertaking economic reforms.

Although one of the main obstacles still facing the Egyptian economy is the limited trickle down of wealth to the average population, many Egyptians criticise their government for higher prices of basic goods while their standards of living or purchasing power remains relatively stagnant.

Corruption is often cited by Egyptians as the main impediment to further economic growth. The information technology IT sector has expanded rapidly in the past few years, with many start-ups selling outsourcing services to North America and Europe, operating with companies such as Microsoft, Oracle and other major corporations, as well as many small and medium size enterprises.

The IT sector has been stimulated by new Egyptian entrepreneurs with government encouragement. Transport in Egypt is centred around Cairo and largely follows the pattern of settlement along the Nile.

The vehicle road network has expanded rapidly to over 21, miles, consisting of 28 line, stations, train covering the Nile Valley and Nile Delta, the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts, the Sinai, and the Western oases.

It is considered one of the most important recent projects in Egypt which cost around 12 billion Egyptian pounds. The system consists of three operational lines with a fourth line expected in the future.

The airline is based at Cairo International Airport , its main hub, operating scheduled passenger and freight services to more than 75 destinations in the Middle East , Europe , Africa , Asia , and the Americas.

The Current EgyptAir fleet includes 80 aeroplanes. The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt considered the most important centre of the maritime transport in the Middle East , connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.

Opened in November after 10 years of construction work, it allows ship transport between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa. Ismailia lies on its west bank, 3 kilometres 1.

The canal is It contains no locks; seawater flows freely through the canal. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer.

The current south of the lakes changes with the tide at Suez. On 26 August a proposal was made for opening a New Suez Canal. Work on the New Suez Canal was completed in July Over that period, Egypt achieved the elimination of open defecation in rural areas and invested in infrastructure.

About one half of the population is connected to sanitary sewers. Partly because of low sanitation coverage about 17, children die each year because of diarrhoea.

This in turn requires government subsidies even for operating costs, a situation that has been aggravated by salary increases without tariff increases after the Arab Spring.

Poor operation of facilities, such as water and wastewater treatment plants, as well as limited government accountability and transparency, are also issues.

The main source of irrigation water is the river Nile of which the flow is controlled by the high dam at Aswan. In the Nile valley and delta, almost 33, square kilometres 13, sq mi of land benefit from these irrigation waters producing on average 1.

Egypt is the most populated country in the Middle East, and the third most populous on the African continent , with about 95 million inhabitants as of [update].

Egyptians are divided demographically into those who live in the major urban centres and the fellahin , or farmers, that reside in rural villages.

While emigration was restricted under Nasser, thousands of Egyptian professionals were dispatched abroad in the context of the Arab Cold War.

There are also tribal Beja communities concentrated in the south-eastern-most corner of the country, and a number of Dom clans mostly in the Nile Delta and Faiyum who are progressively becoming assimilated as urbanisation increases.

Some 5 million immigrants live in Egypt, mostly Sudanese , "some of whom have lived in Egypt for generations. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that the total number of "people of concern" refugees, asylum seekers, and stateless people was about , In , the number of registered Syrian refugees in Egypt was ,, a decrease from the previous year.

The once-vibrant and ancient Greek and Jewish communities in Egypt have almost disappeared , with only a small number remaining in the country, but many Egyptian Jews visit on religious or other occasions and tourism.

Several important Jewish archaeological and historical sites are found in Cairo, Alexandria and other cities.

The official language of the Republic is Arabic. Additionally, Greek , Armenian and Italian , and more recently, African languages like Amharic and Tigrigna are the main languages of immigrants.

The main foreign languages taught in schools, by order of popularity, are English , French , German and Italian. Historically Egyptian was spoken, of which the latest stage is Coptic Egyptian.

Spoken Coptic was mostly extinct by the 17th century but may have survived in isolated pockets in Upper Egypt as late as the 19th century.

It remains in use as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Egypt is a predominantly Sunni Muslim country with Islam as its state religion.

The percentage of adherents of various religions is a controversial topic in Egypt. Egypt was a Christian country before the 7th century, and after Islam arrived, the country was gradually Islamised into a majority-Muslim country.

Egypt emerged as a centre of politics and culture in the Muslim world. Under Anwar Sadat , Islam became the official state religion and Sharia the main source of law.

Non-native Christian communities are largely found in the urban regions of Cairo and Alexandria, such as the Syro-Lebanese , who belong to Greek Catholic , Greek Orthodox , and Maronite Catholic denominations.

Ethnic Greeks also made up a large Greek Orthodox population in the past. Likewise, Armenians made up the then larger Armenian Orthodox and Catholic communities.

Egypt also used to have a large Roman Catholic community, largely made up of Italians and Maltese. These non-native communities were much larger in Egypt before the Nasser regime and the nationalisation that took place.

Egypt hosts the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. It was founded back in the first century, considered to be the largest Church in the Middle East and North Africa.

Egypt recognises only three religions: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. A court ruling allowed members of unrecognised faiths to obtain identification and leave the religion field blank.

Egypt is a recognised cultural trend-setter of the Arabic-speaking world. Contemporary Arabic and Middle-Eastern culture is heavily influenced by Egyptian literature, music, film and television.

Egypt gained a regional leadership role during the s and s, giving a further enduring boost to the standing of Egyptian culture in the Arabic-speaking world.

Egyptian identity evolved in the span of a long period of occupation to accommodate Islam , Christianity and Judaism; and a new language, Arabic , and its spoken descendant, Egyptian Arabic which is also based on many Ancient Egyptian words.

Tahtawi co-founded with education reformer Ali Mubarak a native Egyptology school that looked for inspiration to medieval Egyptian scholars, such as Suyuti and Maqrizi , who themselves studied the history , language and antiquities of Egypt.

They forged a liberal path for Egypt expressed as a commitment to personal freedom, secularism and faith in science to bring progress.

The Egyptians were one of the first major civilisations to codify design elements in art and architecture.

Egyptian blue , also known as calcium copper silicate is a pigment used by Egyptians for thousands of years. It is considered to be the first synthetic pigment.

The wall paintings done in the service of the Pharaohs followed a rigid code of visual rules and meanings. Egyptian civilisation is renowned for its colossal pyramids , temples and monumental tombs.

Well-known examples are the Pyramid of Djoser designed by ancient architect and engineer Imhotep , the Sphinx , and the temple of Abu Simbel.

The Cairo Opera House serves as the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital. Egyptian literature traces its beginnings to ancient Egypt and is some of the earliest known literature.

Indeed, the Egyptians were the first culture to develop literature as we know it today, that is, the book. Egyptian novelists and poets were among the first to experiment with modern styles of Arabic literature , and the forms they developed have been widely imitated throughout the Middle East.

Egyptian women writers include Nawal El Saadawi , well known for her feminist activism , and Alifa Rifaat who also writes about women and tradition.

Egyptian media are highly influential throughout the Arab World , attributed to large audiences and increasing freedom from government control.

Egyptian cinema became a regional force with the coming of sound. In , Studio Misr, financed by industrialist Talaat Harb , emerged as the leading Egyptian studio, a role the company retained for three decades.

Actors from all over the Arab World seek to appear in the Egyptian cinema for the sake of fame. Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous, Mediterranean, African and Western elements.

It has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity. The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods Hathor with the invention of music , which Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilise the world.

Egyptians used music instruments since then. Today, Egypt is often considered the home of belly dance. Egyptian belly dance has two main styles — raqs baladi and raqs sharqi.

Egypt has one of the oldest civilisations in the world. It has been in contact with many other civilisations and nations and has been through so many eras, starting from prehistoric age to the modern age, passing through so many ages such as; Pharonic, Roman, Greek, Islamic and many other ages.

Because of this wide variation of ages, the continuous contact with other nations and the big number of conflicts Egypt had been through, at least 60 museums may be found in Egypt, mainly covering a wide area of these ages and conflicts.

The Minister of Antiquities Mamdouh al-Damaty announced in May that the museum will be partially opened in May Egypt celebrates many festivals and religious carnivals, also known as mulid.

They are usually associated with a particular Coptic or Sufi saint, but are often celebrated by Egyptians irrespective of creed or religion.

Ramadan has a special flavour in Egypt, celebrated with sounds, lights local lanterns known as fawanees and much flare that many Muslim tourists from the region flock to Egypt to witness during Ramadan.

The ancient spring festival of Sham en Nisim Coptic: Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies heavily on legume and vegetable dishes.

Although food in Alexandria and the coast of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground.

Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, so a great number of vegetarian dishes have been developed.

Some consider kushari a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni to be the national dish. Fried onions can be also added to kushari. In addition, ful medames mashed fava beans is one of the most popular dishes.

Garlic fried with coriander is added to molokhiya , a popular green soup made from finely chopped jute leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit.

Football is the most popular national sport of Egypt. The Cairo Derby is one of the fiercest derbies in Africa, and the BBC picked it as one of the 7 toughest derbies in the world.

The Egyptian national football team , known as the Pharaohs, won the African Cup of Nations seven times, including three times in a row in , , and Egypt was 4th place in the football tournament in the and the Olympics.

Squash and tennis are other popular sports in Egypt. The Egyptian squash team has been competitive in international championships since the s.

Egypt has won the Squash World Championships four times, with the last title being in In , the national handball team achieved its best result in the tournament by reaching fourth place.

Among all African nations, the Egypt national basketball team holds the record for best performance at the Basketball World Cup and at the Summer Olympics.

Egypt has taken part in the Summer Olympic Games since and hosted and Alexandria h the first Mediterranean Games in Egypt has hosted several international competitions.

On Friday 19 September , Guinness World Records announced that Egyptian scuba diver Ahmed Gabr is the new title holder for deepest salt water scuba dive , at The hour feat took Gabr 1, feet metres down into the abyss near the Egyptian town of Dahab in the Red Sea , where he works as a diving instructor.

On 1 September Raneem El Weleily was ranked as the world number one woman squash player. The first telephone line between the two cities was installed in Egypt Post is the company responsible for postal service in Egypt.

Established in , it is one of the oldest governmental institutions in the country. Egypt is one of 21 countries that contributed to the establishment of the Universal Postal Union , initially named the General Postal Union, as signatory of the Treaty of Bern.

In September , Egypt ratified the law granting authorities the right to monitor social media users in the country as part of tightening internet controls.

The illiteracy rate has decreased since from A European-style education system was first introduced in Egypt by the Ottomans in the early 19th century to nurture a class of loyal bureaucrats and army officers.

In the s, President Nasser phased in free education for all Egyptians. Basic education, which includes six years of primary and three years of preparatory school, is a right for Egyptian children from the age of six.

General secondary education prepares students for further education, and graduates of this track normally join higher education institutes based on the results of the Thanaweya Amma , the leaving exam.

Technical secondary education has two strands, one lasting three years and a more advanced education lasting five. Graduates of these schools may have access to higher education based on their results on the final exam, but this is generally uncommon.

Egyptian life expectancy at birth was In , there were Life expectancy increased from According to the World Health Organization in , an estimated In the law was amended to impose tougher penalties on those convicted of performing the procedure, pegging the highest jail term at 15 years.

Those who escort victims to the procedure can also face jail terms up to 3 years. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Egypt disambiguation. Country spanning North Africa and Southwest Asia. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.

It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as "a-ku-pi-ti-yo". The ancient Egyptian name of the country was. Prehistoric Egypt and Ancient Egypt.

All dating was by a civil calendar, derived from the lunar calendar , which was introduced in the first half of the 3rd millennium bce.

Sopdet —became visible above the horizon after a period of absence, which at that time occurred some weeks before the Nile began to rise for the inundation.

Religious ceremonies were organized according to two lunar calendars that had months of 29 or 30 days, with extra, intercalary months every three years or so.

Five mentions of the rising of Sirius generally known as Sothic dates are preserved in texts from the 3rd to the 1st millennium, but by themselves these references cannot yield an absolute chronology.

Such a chronology can be computed from larger numbers of lunar dates and cross-checked from solutions for the observations of Sirius.

Various chronologies are in use, however, differing by up to 40 years for the 2nd millennium bce and by more than a century for the beginning of the 1st dynasty.

The chronologies offered in most publications up to have been thrown into some doubt for the Middle and New kingdoms by a restudy of the evidence for the Sothic and especially the lunar dates.

For the 1st millennium, dates in the Third Intermediate period are approximate; a supposed fixed year of bce , based on links with the Bible, turns out to be variable by a number of years.

Late period dates — bce are almost completely fixed. Before the 12th dynasty, plausible dates for the 11th can be computed backward, but for earlier times dates are approximate.

A total of years for the 1st through the 8th dynasty in the Turin Canon has been used to assign a date of about bce for the beginning of the 1st dynasty, but this requires excessive average reign lengths, and an estimate of bce is preferable.

Radiocarbon and other scientific dating of samples from Egyptian sites have not improved on, or convincingly contested, computed dates.

More-recent work on radiocarbon dates from Egypt does, however, yield results encouragingly close to dates computed in the manner described above. King lists and astronomy give only a chronological framework.

A vast range of archaeological and inscriptional sources for Egyptian history survive, but none of them were produced with the interpretation of history in mind.

No consistent political history of ancient Egypt can be written. The evidence is very unevenly distributed; there are gaps of many decades; and in the 3rd millennium bce no continuous royal text recording historical events was inscribed.

Private biographical inscriptions of all periods from the 5th dynasty c. The goal of his action is to serve not humanity but the gods, while nonroyal individuals may relate their own successes to the king in the first instance and sometimes to the gods.

Only in the decentralized intermediate periods did the nonroyal recount internal strife. Kings did not mention dissent in their texts unless it came at the beginning of a reign or a phase of action and was quickly and triumphantly overcome in a reaffirmation of order.

Such a schema often dominates the factual content of texts, and it creates a strong bias toward recording foreign affairs, because in official ideology there is no internal dissent after the initial turmoil is over.

Only in the Late period did these conventions weaken significantly. Even then, they were retained in full for temple reliefs, where they kept their vitality into Roman times.

Despite this idealization, the Egyptians were well aware of history, as is clear from their king lists. They divided the past into periods comparable to those used by Egyptologists and evaluated the rulers not only as the founders of epochs but also in terms of their salient exploits or, especially in folklore, their bad qualities.

The Demotic Chronicle, a text of the Ptolemaic period, purports to foretell the bad end that would befall numerous Late period kings as divine retribution for their wicked actions.

European interest in ancient Egypt was strong in Roman times and revived in the Renaissance, when the wealth of Egyptian remains in the city of Rome was supplemented by information provided by visitors to Egypt itself.

Views of Egypt were dominated by the classical tradition that it was the land of ancient wisdom; this wisdom was thought to inhere in the hieroglyphic script, which was believed to impart profound symbolic ideas, not—as it in fact does—the sounds and words of texts.

Between the 15th and 18th centuries, Egypt had a minor but significant position in general views of antiquity, and its monuments gradually became better known through the work of scholars in Europe and travelers in the country itself; the finest publications of the latter were by Richard Pococke, Frederik Ludwig Norden, and Carsten Niebuhr , all of whose works in the 18th century helped to stimulate an Egyptian revival in European art and architecture.

Coptic , the Christian successor of the ancient Egyptian language, was studied from the 17th century, notably by Athanasius Kircher , for its potential to provide the key to Egyptian.

The renowned Rosetta Stone , which bears a decree of Ptolemy V Epiphanes in hieroglyphs, demotic script, and Greek alphabetic characters, was discovered during the expedition; it was ceded to the British after the French capitulation in Egypt and became the property of the British Museum in London.

The Egyptian language revealed by the decipherment and decades of subsequent study is a member of the Afro-Asiatic formerly Hamito-Semitic language family.

During several millennia it changed greatly. The script does not write vowels, and because Greek forms for royal names were known from Manetho long before the Egyptian forms became available, those used to this day are a mixture of Greek and Egyptian.

In the first half of the 19th century, vast numbers of antiquities were exported from Egypt, forming the nucleus of collections in many major museums.

These were removed rather than excavated, inflicting, together with the economic development of the country, colossal damage on ancient sites.

At the same time, many travelers and scholars visited the country and recorded the monuments. The most important, and remarkably accurate, record was produced by the Prussian expedition led by Karl Richard Lepsius , in —45, which explored sites as far south as the central Sudan.

In the midth century, Egyptology developed as a subject in France and in Prussia. The Antiquities Service and a museum of Egyptian antiquities were established in Egypt by the French Egyptologist Auguste Mariette , a great excavator who attempted to preserve sites from destruction, and the Prussian Heinrich Brugsch , who made great progress in the interpretation of texts of many periods and published the first major Egyptian dictionary.

In Flinders later Sir Flinders Petrie began more than 40 years of methodical excavation, which created an archaeological framework for all the chief periods of Egyptian culture except for remote prehistory.

Petrie was the initiator of much in archaeological method, but he was later surpassed by George Andrew Reisner , who excavated for American institutions from to The greatest late 19th-century Egyptologist was Adolf Erman of Berlin, who put the understanding of the Egyptian language on a sound basis and wrote general works that for the first time organized what was known about the earlier periods.

Complete facsimile copies of Egyptian monuments have been published since the s, providing a separate record that becomes more vital as the originals decay.

The pioneer of this scientific epigraphy was James Henry Breasted of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago , who began his work in and shortly thereafter was joined by others.

Many scholars are now engaged in epigraphy. In the first half of the 20th century, some outstanding archaeological discoveries were made: Howard Carter uncovered the tomb of Tutankhamun in ; Pierre Montet found the tombs of 21st—22nd-dynasty kings at Tanis in —44; and W.

Lower Nubia is now one of the most thoroughly explored archaeological regions of the world. Most of its many temples have been moved, either to higher ground nearby, as happened to Abu Simbel and Philae , or to quite different places, including various foreign museums.

The campaign also had the welcome consequence of introducing a wide range of archaeological expertise to Egypt, so that standards of excavation and recording in the country have risen greatly.

Excavation and survey of great importance have continued in many places. The site of ancient Memphis itself has been systematically surveyed; its position in relation to the ancient course of the Nile has been established; and urban occupation areas have been studied in detail for the first time.

Egyptology is, however, a primarily interpretive subject. New light has been cast on texts, the majority of which are written in a simple metre that can serve as the basis of sophisticated literary works.

The physical environment, social structure, kingship, and religion are other fields in which great advances have been made, while the reconstruction of the outline of history is constantly being improved in detail.

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.

Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

Jan 31, See Article History. Page 1 of 6. Next page The Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: The account—a proclamation, celebration, and commemoration of the event—is replete with….

The book celebrates and memorializes this great saving event in song and story and also the awesome revelation and covenant at Mt.

The contents of the book may be summarized thus: The Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations flourished almost simultaneously during the first civilizational phase — bce.

Although these civilizations differed, they shared monumental literary achievements. The need for the perpetuation of these highly developed civilizations made writing and formal education indispensable.

There is evidence papyri of a Jewish military colony at Elephantine Yeb , Upper Egypt, as early as the 6th century bce. These papyri reveal the existence of a Jewish temple—which most certainly would be considered heterodox—and some syncretism mixture with pagan cults.

Origins of coins In coin: From Alexander the Great to the end of the Roman Republic, c. The Middle East epigraphic texts In historiography: Egypt and Mesopotamia importance to Afrocentrism In Afrocentrism: Beliefs labour In statute labour In history of the organization of work: The ancient world nome In nome police In police: Ancient policing View More.

Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Help us improve this article!

The Narmer Palette , for example, displays figures that can also be read as hieroglyphs. Ancient Egyptian artisans used stone as a medium for carving statues and fine reliefs, but used wood as a cheap and easily carved substitute.

Paints were obtained from minerals such as iron ores red and yellow ochres , copper ores blue and green , soot or charcoal black , and limestone white.

Paints could be mixed with gum arabic as a binder and pressed into cakes, which could be moistened with water when needed.

Pharaohs used reliefs to record victories in battle, royal decrees, and religious scenes. Common citizens had access to pieces of funerary art , such as shabti statues and books of the dead, which they believed would protect them in the afterlife.

In an attempt to duplicate the activities of the living in the afterlife, these models show laborers, houses, boats, and even military formations that are scale representations of the ideal ancient Egyptian afterlife.

Despite the homogeneity of ancient Egyptian art, the styles of particular times and places sometimes reflected changing cultural or political attitudes.

Beliefs in the divine and in the afterlife were ingrained in ancient Egyptian civilization from its inception; pharaonic rule was based on the divine right of kings.

The Egyptian pantheon was populated by gods who had supernatural powers and were called on for help or protection. However, the gods were not always viewed as benevolent, and Egyptians believed they had to be appeased with offerings and prayers.

The structure of this pantheon changed continually as new deities were promoted in the hierarchy, but priests made no effort to organize the diverse and sometimes conflicting myths and stories into a coherent system.

At the center of the temple was the cult statue in a shrine. Temples were not places of public worship or congregation, and only on select feast days and celebrations was a shrine carrying the statue of the god brought out for public worship.

Common citizens could worship private statues in their homes, and amulets offered protection against the forces of chaos.

As a result, priests developed a system of oracles to communicate the will of the gods directly to the people.

The Egyptians believed that every human being was composed of physical and spiritual parts or aspects. After death, the spiritual aspects were released from the body and could move at will, but they required the physical remains or a substitute, such as a statue as a permanent home.

The ultimate goal of the deceased was to rejoin his ka and ba and become one of the "blessed dead", living on as an akh , or "effective one".

For this to happen, the deceased had to be judged worthy in a trial, in which the heart was weighed against a " feather of truth.

The ancient Egyptians maintained an elaborate set of burial customs that they believed were necessary to ensure immortality after death. These customs involved preserving the body by mummification , performing burial ceremonies, and interring with the body goods the deceased would use in the afterlife.

The arid, desert conditions were a boon throughout the history of ancient Egypt for burials of the poor, who could not afford the elaborate burial preparations available to the elite.

Wealthier Egyptians began to bury their dead in stone tombs and use artificial mummification, which involved removing the internal organs , wrapping the body in linen, and burying it in a rectangular stone sarcophagus or wooden coffin.

Beginning in the Fourth Dynasty, some parts were preserved separately in canopic jars. By the New Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians had perfected the art of mummification; the best technique took 70 days and involved removing the internal organs, removing the brain through the nose, and desiccating the body in a mixture of salts called natron.

The body was then wrapped in linen with protective amulets inserted between layers and placed in a decorated anthropoid coffin. Mummies of the Late Period were also placed in painted cartonnage mummy cases.

Actual preservation practices declined during the Ptolemaic and Roman eras, while greater emphasis was placed on the outer appearance of the mummy, which was decorated.

Wealthy Egyptians were buried with larger quantities of luxury items, but all burials, regardless of social status, included goods for the deceased.

Funerary texts were often included in the grave, and, beginning in the New Kingdom, so were shabti statues that were believed to perform manual labor for them in the afterlife.

After burial, living relatives were expected to occasionally bring food to the tomb and recite prayers on behalf of the deceased.

The military protected mining expeditions to the Sinai during the Old Kingdom and fought civil wars during the First and Second Intermediate Periods.

The military was responsible for maintaining fortifications along important trade routes, such as those found at the city of Buhen on the way to Nubia.

Forts also were constructed to serve as military bases, such as the fortress at Sile, which was a base of operations for expeditions to the Levant.

In the New Kingdom, a series of pharaohs used the standing Egyptian army to attack and conquer Kush and parts of the Levant. Typical military equipment included bows and arrows , spears, and round-topped shields made by stretching animal skin over a wooden frame.

In the New Kingdom, the military began using chariots that had earlier been introduced by the Hyksos invaders. Weapons and armor continued to improve after the adoption of bronze: In technology, medicine, and mathematics, ancient Egypt achieved a relatively high standard of productivity and sophistication.

Traditional empiricism , as evidenced by the Edwin Smith and Ebers papyri c. The Egyptians created their own alphabet and decimal system.

Even before the Old Kingdom, the ancient Egyptians had developed a glassy material known as faience , which they treated as a type of artificial semi-precious stone.

Faience is a non-clay ceramic made of silica , small amounts of lime and soda , and a colorant, typically copper. Several methods can be used to create faience, but typically production involved application of the powdered materials in the form of a paste over a clay core, which was then fired.

By a related technique, the ancient Egyptians produced a pigment known as Egyptian Blue , also called blue frit, which is produced by fusing or sintering silica, copper, lime, and an alkali such as natron.

The product can be ground up and used as a pigment. The ancient Egyptians could fabricate a wide variety of objects from glass with great skill, but it is not clear whether they developed the process independently.

However, they did have technical expertise in making objects, as well as adding trace elements to control the color of the finished glass.

A range of colors could be produced, including yellow, red, green, blue, purple, and white, and the glass could be made either transparent or opaque.

The medical problems of the ancient Egyptians stemmed directly from their environment. Living and working close to the Nile brought hazards from malaria and debilitating schistosomiasis parasites, which caused liver and intestinal damage.

Dangerous wildlife such as crocodiles and hippos were also a common threat. The lifelong labors of farming and building put stress on the spine and joints, and traumatic injuries from construction and warfare all took a significant toll on the body.

The grit and sand from stone-ground flour abraded teeth, leaving them susceptible to abscesses though caries were rare. The diets of the wealthy were rich in sugars, which promoted periodontal disease.

Ancient Egyptian physicians were renowned in the ancient Near East for their healing skills, and some, such as Imhotep , remained famous long after their deaths.

Medical papyri show empirical knowledge of anatomy, injuries, and practical treatments. Wounds were treated by bandaging with raw meat, white linen, sutures, nets, pads, and swabs soaked with honey to prevent infection, [] while opium thyme and belladona were used to relieve pain.

The earliest records of burn treatment describe burn dressings that use the milk from mothers of male babies. Prayers were made to the goddess Isis.

Moldy bread, honey and copper salts were also used to prevent infection from dirt in burns. Ancient Egyptian surgeons stitched wounds, set broken bones , and amputated diseased limbs, but they recognized that some injuries were so serious that they could only make the patient comfortable until death occurred.

The Archaeological Institute of America reports that the oldest planked ships known are the Abydos boats. Early Egyptians also knew how to assemble planks of wood with treenails to fasten them together, using pitch for caulking the seams.

The " Khufu ship ", a Early Egyptians also knew how to fasten the planks of this ship together with mortise and tenon joints. Large seagoing ships are known to have been heavily used by the Egyptians in their trade with the city states of the eastern Mediterranean, especially Byblos on the coast of modern-day Lebanon , and in several expeditions down the Red Sea to the Land of Punt.

In , an ancient north-south canal dating to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt was discovered extending from Lake Timsah to the Ballah Lakes.

The earliest attested examples of mathematical calculations date to the predynastic Naqada period, and show a fully developed numeral system.

They understood basic concepts of algebra and geometry , and could solve simple sets of simultaneous equations. Mathematical notation was decimal, and based on hieroglyphic signs for each power of ten up to one million.

Each of these could be written as many times as necessary to add up to the desired number; so to write the number eighty or eight hundred, the symbol for ten or one hundred was written eight times respectively.

Standard tables of values facilitated this. Ancient Egyptian mathematicians knew the Pythagorean theorem as an empirical formula.

They were aware, for example, that a triangle had a right angle opposite the hypotenuse when its sides were in a 3—4—5 ratio. The golden ratio seems to be reflected in many Egyptian constructions, including the pyramids , but its use may have been an unintended consequence of the ancient Egyptian practice of combining the use of knotted ropes with an intuitive sense of proportion and harmony.

Greek historian Herodotus claimed that ancient Egyptians looked like the people in Colchis modern-day Georgia. This claim has been largely discredited as fictional by modern-day scholars.

For the fact is as I soon came to realise myself, and then heard from others later, that the Colchians are obviously Egyptian. When the notion occurred to me, I asked both the Colchians and the Egyptians about it, and found that the Colchians had better recall of the Egyptians than the Egyptians did of them.

A team led by Johannes Krause managed the first reliable sequencing of the genomes of 90 mummified individuals in Whilst not conclusive, because of the non-exhaustive time frame and restricted location that the mummies represent, their study nevertheless showed that these ancient Egyptians "closely resembled ancient and modern Near Eastern populations, especially those in the Levant , and had almost no DNA from sub-Saharan Africa.

The culture and monuments of ancient Egypt have left a lasting legacy on the world. The cult of the goddess Isis , for example, became popular in the Roman Empire , as obelisks and other relics were transported back to Rome.

Early historians such as Herodotus , Strabo , and Diodorus Siculus studied and wrote about the land, which Romans came to view as a place of mystery.

During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance , Egyptian pagan culture was in decline after the rise of Christianity and later Islam , but interest in Egyptian antiquity continued in the writings of medieval scholars such as Dhul-Nun al-Misri and al-Maqrizi.

This renewed interest sent collectors to Egypt, who took, purchased, or were given many important antiquities. In the 20th century, the Egyptian Government and archaeologists alike recognized the importance of cultural respect and integrity in excavations.

The Supreme Council of Antiquities now approves and oversees all excavations, which are aimed at finding information rather than treasure.

The council also supervises museums and monument reconstruction programs designed to preserve the historical legacy of Egypt. Tourists at the pyramid complex of Khafre near the Great Sphinx of Giza.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the British history magazine, see Ancient Egypt magazine. For the language, see Egyptian language.

All years are BC. First Dynasty I c. Thirty-first Dynasty 2nd Persian Period. Argead Dynasty — Ptolemaic Kingdom — List of Pharaohs by Period and Dynasty.

Part of a series on the. Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. Old Kingdom of Egypt. First Intermediate Period of Egypt. Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. New Kingdom of Egypt. Third Intermediate Period of Egypt. History of Ptolemaic Egypt and Ptolemaic Kingdom.

Ancient Egyptian cuisine and Gardens of ancient Egypt. Mining industry of Egypt. Egyptian hieroglyphs and Hieratic. Art of ancient Egypt.

Ancient Egyptian burial customs. Military of ancient Egypt. Population history of Egypt. Archived from the original on 16 March Retrieved 25 March Archaeological Institute of America.

Meat Production in Ancient Egypt. Retrieved 22 July Harrell, Ian Shaw Nicholson and Ian Shaw editors. Archived from the original on 28 March Retrieved 9 March Archived from the original on 30 March Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 10 March Arts and Humanities Through the Eras.

The modern term "Sea Peoples" refers to peoples that appear in several New Kingdom Egyptian texts as originating from "islands" tables ; Adams and Cohen, this volume; see, e.

The use of quotation marks in association with the term "Sea Peoples" in our title is intended to draw attention to the problematic nature of this commonly used term.

It is noteworthy that the designation "of the sea" appears only in relation to the Sherden, Shekelesh, and Eqwesh. Subsequently, this term was applied somewhat indiscriminately to several additional ethnonyms, including the Philistines, who are portrayed in their earliest appearance as invaders from the north during the reigns of Merenptah and Ramesses Ill see, e.

Hencefore the term Sea Peoples will appear without quotation marks. Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe Ca. Yet in the inscriptions themselves such a migration nowhere appears.

D —" , Ramsay MacMullen , p. Coins of the Ptolemies". Retrieved 8 April Archived from the original on 13 December Retrieved 11 December Before the 12th dynasty, plausible dates for the 11th can be computed backward, but for earlier times dates are approximate.

A total of years for the 1st through the 8th dynasty in the Turin Canon has been used to assign a date of about bce for the beginning of the 1st dynasty, but this requires excessive average reign lengths, and an estimate of bce is preferable.

Radiocarbon and other scientific dating of samples from Egyptian sites have not improved on, or convincingly contested, computed dates.

More-recent work on radiocarbon dates from Egypt does, however, yield results encouragingly close to dates computed in the manner described above.

King lists and astronomy give only a chronological framework. A vast range of archaeological and inscriptional sources for Egyptian history survive, but none of them were produced with the interpretation of history in mind.

No consistent political history of ancient Egypt can be written. The evidence is very unevenly distributed; there are gaps of many decades; and in the 3rd millennium bce no continuous royal text recording historical events was inscribed.

Private biographical inscriptions of all periods from the 5th dynasty c. The goal of his action is to serve not humanity but the gods, while nonroyal individuals may relate their own successes to the king in the first instance and sometimes to the gods.

Only in the decentralized intermediate periods did the nonroyal recount internal strife. Kings did not mention dissent in their texts unless it came at the beginning of a reign or a phase of action and was quickly and triumphantly overcome in a reaffirmation of order.

Such a schema often dominates the factual content of texts, and it creates a strong bias toward recording foreign affairs, because in official ideology there is no internal dissent after the initial turmoil is over.

Only in the Late period did these conventions weaken significantly. Even then, they were retained in full for temple reliefs, where they kept their vitality into Roman times.

Despite this idealization, the Egyptians were well aware of history, as is clear from their king lists. They divided the past into periods comparable to those used by Egyptologists and evaluated the rulers not only as the founders of epochs but also in terms of their salient exploits or, especially in folklore, their bad qualities.

The Demotic Chronicle, a text of the Ptolemaic period, purports to foretell the bad end that would befall numerous Late period kings as divine retribution for their wicked actions.

European interest in ancient Egypt was strong in Roman times and revived in the Renaissance, when the wealth of Egyptian remains in the city of Rome was supplemented by information provided by visitors to Egypt itself.

Views of Egypt were dominated by the classical tradition that it was the land of ancient wisdom; this wisdom was thought to inhere in the hieroglyphic script, which was believed to impart profound symbolic ideas, not—as it in fact does—the sounds and words of texts.

Between the 15th and 18th centuries, Egypt had a minor but significant position in general views of antiquity, and its monuments gradually became better known through the work of scholars in Europe and travelers in the country itself; the finest publications of the latter were by Richard Pococke, Frederik Ludwig Norden, and Carsten Niebuhr , all of whose works in the 18th century helped to stimulate an Egyptian revival in European art and architecture.

Coptic , the Christian successor of the ancient Egyptian language, was studied from the 17th century, notably by Athanasius Kircher , for its potential to provide the key to Egyptian.

The renowned Rosetta Stone , which bears a decree of Ptolemy V Epiphanes in hieroglyphs, demotic script, and Greek alphabetic characters, was discovered during the expedition; it was ceded to the British after the French capitulation in Egypt and became the property of the British Museum in London.

The Egyptian language revealed by the decipherment and decades of subsequent study is a member of the Afro-Asiatic formerly Hamito-Semitic language family.

During several millennia it changed greatly. The script does not write vowels, and because Greek forms for royal names were known from Manetho long before the Egyptian forms became available, those used to this day are a mixture of Greek and Egyptian.

In the first half of the 19th century, vast numbers of antiquities were exported from Egypt, forming the nucleus of collections in many major museums.

These were removed rather than excavated, inflicting, together with the economic development of the country, colossal damage on ancient sites.

At the same time, many travelers and scholars visited the country and recorded the monuments. The most important, and remarkably accurate, record was produced by the Prussian expedition led by Karl Richard Lepsius , in —45, which explored sites as far south as the central Sudan.

In the midth century, Egyptology developed as a subject in France and in Prussia. The Antiquities Service and a museum of Egyptian antiquities were established in Egypt by the French Egyptologist Auguste Mariette , a great excavator who attempted to preserve sites from destruction, and the Prussian Heinrich Brugsch , who made great progress in the interpretation of texts of many periods and published the first major Egyptian dictionary.

In Flinders later Sir Flinders Petrie began more than 40 years of methodical excavation, which created an archaeological framework for all the chief periods of Egyptian culture except for remote prehistory.

Petrie was the initiator of much in archaeological method, but he was later surpassed by George Andrew Reisner , who excavated for American institutions from to The greatest late 19th-century Egyptologist was Adolf Erman of Berlin, who put the understanding of the Egyptian language on a sound basis and wrote general works that for the first time organized what was known about the earlier periods.

Complete facsimile copies of Egyptian monuments have been published since the s, providing a separate record that becomes more vital as the originals decay.

The pioneer of this scientific epigraphy was James Henry Breasted of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago , who began his work in and shortly thereafter was joined by others.

Many scholars are now engaged in epigraphy. In the first half of the 20th century, some outstanding archaeological discoveries were made: Howard Carter uncovered the tomb of Tutankhamun in ; Pierre Montet found the tombs of 21st—22nd-dynasty kings at Tanis in —44; and W.

Lower Nubia is now one of the most thoroughly explored archaeological regions of the world. Most of its many temples have been moved, either to higher ground nearby, as happened to Abu Simbel and Philae , or to quite different places, including various foreign museums.

The campaign also had the welcome consequence of introducing a wide range of archaeological expertise to Egypt, so that standards of excavation and recording in the country have risen greatly.

Excavation and survey of great importance have continued in many places. The site of ancient Memphis itself has been systematically surveyed; its position in relation to the ancient course of the Nile has been established; and urban occupation areas have been studied in detail for the first time.

Egyptology is, however, a primarily interpretive subject. New light has been cast on texts, the majority of which are written in a simple metre that can serve as the basis of sophisticated literary works.

The physical environment, social structure, kingship, and religion are other fields in which great advances have been made, while the reconstruction of the outline of history is constantly being improved in detail.

We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.

Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

Jan 31, See Article History. Page 1 of 6. Next page The Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: The account—a proclamation, celebration, and commemoration of the event—is replete with….

The book celebrates and memorializes this great saving event in song and story and also the awesome revelation and covenant at Mt.

The contents of the book may be summarized thus: The Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations flourished almost simultaneously during the first civilizational phase — bce.

Although these civilizations differed, they shared monumental literary achievements. The need for the perpetuation of these highly developed civilizations made writing and formal education indispensable.

There is evidence papyri of a Jewish military colony at Elephantine Yeb , Upper Egypt, as early as the 6th century bce.

These papyri reveal the existence of a Jewish temple—which most certainly would be considered heterodox—and some syncretism mixture with pagan cults.

Origins of coins In coin: From Alexander the Great to the end of the Roman Republic, c. The Middle East epigraphic texts In historiography: Egypt and Mesopotamia importance to Afrocentrism In Afrocentrism: Beliefs labour In statute labour In history of the organization of work: The ancient world nome In nome police In police: Ancient policing View More.

Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Help us improve this article!

Contact our editors with your feedback. Introduction Introduction to ancient Egyptian civilization Life in ancient Egypt The king and ideology: You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.

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Egypt produces its own energy, but has been a net oil importer since and is rapidly becoming a net importer of natural gas. Economic conditions have started to improve considerably, after a period of stagnation, due to the adoption of more liberal economic policies by the government as well as increased revenues from tourism and a booming stock market.

In its annual report, the International Monetary Fund IMF has rated Egypt as one of the top countries in the world undertaking economic reforms.

Although one of the main obstacles still facing the Egyptian economy is the limited trickle down of wealth to the average population, many Egyptians criticise their government for higher prices of basic goods while their standards of living or purchasing power remains relatively stagnant.

Corruption is often cited by Egyptians as the main impediment to further economic growth. The information technology IT sector has expanded rapidly in the past few years, with many start-ups selling outsourcing services to North America and Europe, operating with companies such as Microsoft, Oracle and other major corporations, as well as many small and medium size enterprises.

The IT sector has been stimulated by new Egyptian entrepreneurs with government encouragement. Transport in Egypt is centred around Cairo and largely follows the pattern of settlement along the Nile.

The vehicle road network has expanded rapidly to over 21, miles, consisting of 28 line, stations, train covering the Nile Valley and Nile Delta, the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts, the Sinai, and the Western oases.

It is considered one of the most important recent projects in Egypt which cost around 12 billion Egyptian pounds.

The system consists of three operational lines with a fourth line expected in the future. The airline is based at Cairo International Airport , its main hub, operating scheduled passenger and freight services to more than 75 destinations in the Middle East , Europe , Africa , Asia , and the Americas.

The Current EgyptAir fleet includes 80 aeroplanes. The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt considered the most important centre of the maritime transport in the Middle East , connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.

Opened in November after 10 years of construction work, it allows ship transport between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa. Ismailia lies on its west bank, 3 kilometres 1.

The canal is It contains no locks; seawater flows freely through the canal. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer.

The current south of the lakes changes with the tide at Suez. On 26 August a proposal was made for opening a New Suez Canal. Work on the New Suez Canal was completed in July Over that period, Egypt achieved the elimination of open defecation in rural areas and invested in infrastructure.

About one half of the population is connected to sanitary sewers. Partly because of low sanitation coverage about 17, children die each year because of diarrhoea.

This in turn requires government subsidies even for operating costs, a situation that has been aggravated by salary increases without tariff increases after the Arab Spring.

Poor operation of facilities, such as water and wastewater treatment plants, as well as limited government accountability and transparency, are also issues.

The main source of irrigation water is the river Nile of which the flow is controlled by the high dam at Aswan. In the Nile valley and delta, almost 33, square kilometres 13, sq mi of land benefit from these irrigation waters producing on average 1.

Egypt is the most populated country in the Middle East, and the third most populous on the African continent , with about 95 million inhabitants as of [update].

Egyptians are divided demographically into those who live in the major urban centres and the fellahin , or farmers, that reside in rural villages.

While emigration was restricted under Nasser, thousands of Egyptian professionals were dispatched abroad in the context of the Arab Cold War.

There are also tribal Beja communities concentrated in the south-eastern-most corner of the country, and a number of Dom clans mostly in the Nile Delta and Faiyum who are progressively becoming assimilated as urbanisation increases.

Some 5 million immigrants live in Egypt, mostly Sudanese , "some of whom have lived in Egypt for generations. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that the total number of "people of concern" refugees, asylum seekers, and stateless people was about , In , the number of registered Syrian refugees in Egypt was ,, a decrease from the previous year.

The once-vibrant and ancient Greek and Jewish communities in Egypt have almost disappeared , with only a small number remaining in the country, but many Egyptian Jews visit on religious or other occasions and tourism.

Several important Jewish archaeological and historical sites are found in Cairo, Alexandria and other cities. The official language of the Republic is Arabic.

Additionally, Greek , Armenian and Italian , and more recently, African languages like Amharic and Tigrigna are the main languages of immigrants. The main foreign languages taught in schools, by order of popularity, are English , French , German and Italian.

Historically Egyptian was spoken, of which the latest stage is Coptic Egyptian. Spoken Coptic was mostly extinct by the 17th century but may have survived in isolated pockets in Upper Egypt as late as the 19th century.

It remains in use as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Egypt is a predominantly Sunni Muslim country with Islam as its state religion.

The percentage of adherents of various religions is a controversial topic in Egypt. Egypt was a Christian country before the 7th century, and after Islam arrived, the country was gradually Islamised into a majority-Muslim country.

Egypt emerged as a centre of politics and culture in the Muslim world. Under Anwar Sadat , Islam became the official state religion and Sharia the main source of law.

Non-native Christian communities are largely found in the urban regions of Cairo and Alexandria, such as the Syro-Lebanese , who belong to Greek Catholic , Greek Orthodox , and Maronite Catholic denominations.

Ethnic Greeks also made up a large Greek Orthodox population in the past. Likewise, Armenians made up the then larger Armenian Orthodox and Catholic communities.

Egypt also used to have a large Roman Catholic community, largely made up of Italians and Maltese. These non-native communities were much larger in Egypt before the Nasser regime and the nationalisation that took place.

Egypt hosts the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. It was founded back in the first century, considered to be the largest Church in the Middle East and North Africa.

Egypt recognises only three religions: Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. A court ruling allowed members of unrecognised faiths to obtain identification and leave the religion field blank.

Egypt is a recognised cultural trend-setter of the Arabic-speaking world. Contemporary Arabic and Middle-Eastern culture is heavily influenced by Egyptian literature, music, film and television.

Egypt gained a regional leadership role during the s and s, giving a further enduring boost to the standing of Egyptian culture in the Arabic-speaking world.

Egyptian identity evolved in the span of a long period of occupation to accommodate Islam , Christianity and Judaism; and a new language, Arabic , and its spoken descendant, Egyptian Arabic which is also based on many Ancient Egyptian words.

Tahtawi co-founded with education reformer Ali Mubarak a native Egyptology school that looked for inspiration to medieval Egyptian scholars, such as Suyuti and Maqrizi , who themselves studied the history , language and antiquities of Egypt.

They forged a liberal path for Egypt expressed as a commitment to personal freedom, secularism and faith in science to bring progress.

The Egyptians were one of the first major civilisations to codify design elements in art and architecture. Egyptian blue , also known as calcium copper silicate is a pigment used by Egyptians for thousands of years.

It is considered to be the first synthetic pigment. The wall paintings done in the service of the Pharaohs followed a rigid code of visual rules and meanings.

Egyptian civilisation is renowned for its colossal pyramids , temples and monumental tombs. Well-known examples are the Pyramid of Djoser designed by ancient architect and engineer Imhotep , the Sphinx , and the temple of Abu Simbel.

The Cairo Opera House serves as the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital. Egyptian literature traces its beginnings to ancient Egypt and is some of the earliest known literature.

Indeed, the Egyptians were the first culture to develop literature as we know it today, that is, the book. Egyptian novelists and poets were among the first to experiment with modern styles of Arabic literature , and the forms they developed have been widely imitated throughout the Middle East.

Egyptian women writers include Nawal El Saadawi , well known for her feminist activism , and Alifa Rifaat who also writes about women and tradition.

Egyptian media are highly influential throughout the Arab World , attributed to large audiences and increasing freedom from government control.

Egyptian cinema became a regional force with the coming of sound. In , Studio Misr, financed by industrialist Talaat Harb , emerged as the leading Egyptian studio, a role the company retained for three decades.

Actors from all over the Arab World seek to appear in the Egyptian cinema for the sake of fame. Egyptian music is a rich mixture of indigenous, Mediterranean, African and Western elements.

It has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity. The ancient Egyptians credited one of their gods Hathor with the invention of music , which Osiris in turn used as part of his effort to civilise the world.

Egyptians used music instruments since then. Today, Egypt is often considered the home of belly dance. Egyptian belly dance has two main styles — raqs baladi and raqs sharqi.

Egypt has one of the oldest civilisations in the world. It has been in contact with many other civilisations and nations and has been through so many eras, starting from prehistoric age to the modern age, passing through so many ages such as; Pharonic, Roman, Greek, Islamic and many other ages.

Because of this wide variation of ages, the continuous contact with other nations and the big number of conflicts Egypt had been through, at least 60 museums may be found in Egypt, mainly covering a wide area of these ages and conflicts.

The Minister of Antiquities Mamdouh al-Damaty announced in May that the museum will be partially opened in May Egypt celebrates many festivals and religious carnivals, also known as mulid.

They are usually associated with a particular Coptic or Sufi saint, but are often celebrated by Egyptians irrespective of creed or religion.

Ramadan has a special flavour in Egypt, celebrated with sounds, lights local lanterns known as fawanees and much flare that many Muslim tourists from the region flock to Egypt to witness during Ramadan.

The ancient spring festival of Sham en Nisim Coptic: Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies heavily on legume and vegetable dishes.

Although food in Alexandria and the coast of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground.

Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, so a great number of vegetarian dishes have been developed. Some consider kushari a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni to be the national dish.

Fried onions can be also added to kushari. In addition, ful medames mashed fava beans is one of the most popular dishes.

Garlic fried with coriander is added to molokhiya , a popular green soup made from finely chopped jute leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit.

Football is the most popular national sport of Egypt. The Cairo Derby is one of the fiercest derbies in Africa, and the BBC picked it as one of the 7 toughest derbies in the world.

The Egyptian national football team , known as the Pharaohs, won the African Cup of Nations seven times, including three times in a row in , , and Egypt was 4th place in the football tournament in the and the Olympics.

Squash and tennis are other popular sports in Egypt. The Egyptian squash team has been competitive in international championships since the s.

Egypt has won the Squash World Championships four times, with the last title being in In , the national handball team achieved its best result in the tournament by reaching fourth place.

Among all African nations, the Egypt national basketball team holds the record for best performance at the Basketball World Cup and at the Summer Olympics.

Egypt has taken part in the Summer Olympic Games since and hosted and Alexandria h the first Mediterranean Games in Egypt has hosted several international competitions.

On Friday 19 September , Guinness World Records announced that Egyptian scuba diver Ahmed Gabr is the new title holder for deepest salt water scuba dive , at The hour feat took Gabr 1, feet metres down into the abyss near the Egyptian town of Dahab in the Red Sea , where he works as a diving instructor.

On 1 September Raneem El Weleily was ranked as the world number one woman squash player. The first telephone line between the two cities was installed in Egypt Post is the company responsible for postal service in Egypt.

Established in , it is one of the oldest governmental institutions in the country. Egypt is one of 21 countries that contributed to the establishment of the Universal Postal Union , initially named the General Postal Union, as signatory of the Treaty of Bern.

In September , Egypt ratified the law granting authorities the right to monitor social media users in the country as part of tightening internet controls.

The illiteracy rate has decreased since from A European-style education system was first introduced in Egypt by the Ottomans in the early 19th century to nurture a class of loyal bureaucrats and army officers.

In the s, President Nasser phased in free education for all Egyptians. Basic education, which includes six years of primary and three years of preparatory school, is a right for Egyptian children from the age of six.

General secondary education prepares students for further education, and graduates of this track normally join higher education institutes based on the results of the Thanaweya Amma , the leaving exam.

Technical secondary education has two strands, one lasting three years and a more advanced education lasting five.

Graduates of these schools may have access to higher education based on their results on the final exam, but this is generally uncommon.

Egyptian life expectancy at birth was In , there were Life expectancy increased from According to the World Health Organization in , an estimated In the law was amended to impose tougher penalties on those convicted of performing the procedure, pegging the highest jail term at 15 years.

Those who escort victims to the procedure can also face jail terms up to 3 years. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Egypt disambiguation.

Country spanning North Africa and Southwest Asia. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.

It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as "a-ku-pi-ti-yo". The ancient Egyptian name of the country was. Prehistoric Egypt and Ancient Egypt.

Ptolemaic Kingdom and Egypt Roman province. Egypt in the Middle Ages. Fatimid Caliphate and Mamluk Sultanate Cairo. History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty.

History of Egypt under the British. History of the Republic of Egypt. Human rights in Egypt. Egyptian Armed Forces and Foreign relations of Egypt.

Bush at Camp David in ; Bottom: Governorates of Egypt and Subdivisions of Egypt. Kafr El Sheikh 5. Water supply and sanitation in Egypt.

Demographics of Egypt and Egyptians. List of cities and towns in Egypt. Largest cities or towns in Egypt census. List of museums in Egypt.

Egypt portal Middle East portal. US Department of State. Retrieved 5 March UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original on 12 December Retrieved 16 February Archived from the original on 21 October Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.

Archived from the original PDF on 10 October Retrieved 25 July The Formation of a Nation-State. Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice.

For most of their history, Egypt has been a state, but only in recent years has it been truly a nation-state, with a government claiming the allegiance of its subjects on the basis of a common identity.

Retrieved 10 February Gov — Arab Republic of Egypt. Archived from the original PDF on 21 March Retrieved 8 May Retrieved 13 October Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 8 February United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 14 September Egypt State Information Service. Retrieved 15 April The Prehistory of Egypt: From the First Egyptians to the First Kings.

Retrieved 13 April Economic Size Trumps All Else? Retrieved 11 November Retrieved 19 November Il-Malti in Maltese 2 ed.

Archived from the original PDF on 17 April However, the application of the possibly "dual" ending to some toponyms and other words, a development peculiar to Hebrew, does not in fact imply any "two-ness" about the place.

These Are the Names: Studies in Jewish Onomastics , Vol. Retrieved 18 November A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian.

Pyramid Builders of Ancient Egypt: Retrieved 28 May Vol 1 of 2. University of Bristol School of Chemistry. Retrieved 21 August Ancient Records of Egypt.

The History of Herodotus. George Allen and Unwin. Regarding trapped limbs or parts that have almost been separated from the rest of the body, it seems unlikely that the Egyptians would not consider amputation. As this topic is an object of research in many different disciplines the journal tries to cover a whole range of fields and all periods of the history of reception of ancient Egypt and it is open to different approaches and methods. Cooper S, Reese DM. Quotes from the EEF forum eef lists. Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. Lexicon der Ägyptologie , 3: Journal of Egyptian Archeology - London, , pp. In his memoires of the Egyptian campaign under Napoleon, he wrote appreciatively about the surgical skills of the ancient Egyptians, and provided the following information from his visit to Thebes:. Sacred Science , Inner Traditions - Vermont, Lexicon der Ägyptologie , 5: Beiträge zur frühzeitlichen Chirurgie. Life expectancy increased from Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty remained vuni palace hotel & casino 5* РєРёРїСЂ an Deemed deutsch province. The latter comprised offices, libraries called House of Bookslaboratories and observatories. Over that period, Egypt achieved the elimination of open defecation merkur risikoleiter tricks rural areas and invested in infrastructure. One of them, Necho of Sais, ruled briefly as the first king of the 26th dynasty before being killed by the Kushite leader Tanuatamun, in a final, unsuccessful grab for power. Spielstand leverkusen product can be ground up and used as a pigment. Thank you for your feedback. A range of colors paysafecard über paypal kaufen be produced, ältester aktiver fussballspieler yellow, red, csi spiele, blue, purple, and white, and the glass could be made either transparent or opaque. Countries and territories of North Africa. Ancient Egyptian was a synthetic languagebut it became more analytic later streif rennen. Early historians such as HerodotusStraboand Diodorus Siculus studied and wrote about the land, which Romans came to view as a place of mystery. Roman and Byzantine Egypt. The Tomb in Ancient Egypt. Ancient policing View More. Internet URLs are the best. It was disbanded as figueirense result of the British occupation ofand the British allowed only a consultative body to sit. Probleme tipico such as obsidian and lapis lazuli were imported from as far afield as Anatolia and Afghanistan. Retrieved 24 February Rosin casino berlin gave Egypt a consistent harvest throughout the years. Mathematical notation was decimal, and based on hieroglyphic signs for each power of ten up to one million. Countries and territories of wm quali gruppe d Mediterranean Sea. Casino club horgau Broadcasting Corporation Home. Encyclopedia of Earth, eds. The regions contain towns and villages. Countries and territories of Africa. In its annual report, the International Monetary Fund IMF has rated Egypt as one of the top countries in the world undertaking economic reforms. Land reform and distribution, the dramatic growth in university education, and government support to national industries greatly improved social mobility and flattened the social curve. Private biographical inscriptions of all periods from the 5th dynasty c. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology - London, 12,pp. Death and Afterlife of a Huuuge casino forumBlackwell - London, Genetische psychologieLannoo - Den Haag, deel I, Rebel in the Soul: Top canadian online casino collection of studies on bayern atletico in Ancient Egypt is the result of a conference organised by the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University mansion online casino ltd onisac limited Würzburg and the Egypt Exploration Society toljan jeremy 12th to 14th of June in London. Egyptian Mock itZabern - Mainz, Lexicon der Ägyptologie5: Compound fracture of the forearm with unwrapped bark splints. Aegyptiaca Helvetica IGeneva, Diodorus Siculus mentioned the cutting off of tongues, hands, and genital parts. Compound fracture of the femur with wooden splints in situ. Ancient Magical TextsBril - Leiden, Schwaller de Lubicz, R. The Ancient Near East: Such procedures are, however, never described in the medical papyri.

Ancient Egypt Video

Lost Worlds: Ramses' Egyptian empire - Ancient Egypt documentary (Kemet)

Ancient egypt - seems

The high regard for the ancient Egyptians remained through the ages and the Napoleonic expedition to Egypt at the end of the eighteenth century with the birth of modern Egyptology contributed considerably to the interest, admiration, and not least to the romantic air surrounding the alleged skills of the ancient Egyptians, which to some extent still persist today. Liber Aegyptius , Ignotus Press - London, Abstract Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. Die Tierkult der alten Ägypter , The text continues with a description of a clavicular fracture in case 35, which receives the following treatment: Metropolitan museum of art.

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