Mai Die Saga um John Carter vom Mars bzw. der Barsoom- oder Mars-Zyklus ist eine der A Fighting Man of Mars – Blue Book Magazine; / Book of the Dead. The Book of the Dead was an Ancient Egyptian book made of pure obsidian. Known colloquially as File history. Click on a date/time to view. English: Facsimile of a vignette from the Book of the Dead of Ani. The ba of the deceased Ani hovers over his mummy as it lies on a bier. The unification of ba.
The discovery proved to be scientifically important, and by an exhibition was established in the Museum of Natural History in Budapest.
Unique to the Hungarian mummies are their elaborately decorated coffins, with no two being exactly alike. The varied geography and climatology of Italy has led to many cases of spontaneous mummification.
Originally intended to hold the deliberately mummified remains of dead friars, interment in the catacombs became a status symbol for the local population in the following centuries.
Burials continued until the s, with one of the most famous final burials being that of Rosalia Lombardo. In all, the catacombs host nearly mummies.
The most recent discovery of mummies in Italy came in , when sixty mummified human remains were found in the crypt of the Conversion of St Paul church in Roccapelago di Pievepelago , Italy.
Built in the 15th century as a cannon hold and later converted in the 16th century, the crypt had been sealed once it had reached capacity, leaving the bodies to be protected and preserved.
The crypt was reopened during restoration work on the church, revealing the diverse array of mummies inside. The bodies were quickly moved to a museum for further study.
The mummies of North America are often steeped in controversy, as many of these bodies have been linked to still-existing native cultures.
While the mummies provide a wealth of historically-significant data, native cultures and tradition often demands the remains be returned to their original resting places.
This has led to many legal actions by Native American councils, leading to most museums keeping mummified remains out of the public eye.
In , eight remarkably preserved mummies were discovered at an abandoned Inuit settlement called Qilakitsoq , in Greenland.
The "Greenland Mummies" consisted of a six-month-old baby, a four-year-old boy, and six women of various ages, who died around years ago.
Their bodies were naturally mummified by the sub-zero temperatures and dry winds in the cave in which they were found. Intentional mummification in pre-Columbian Mexico was practiced by the Aztec culture.
These bodies are collectively known as Aztec mummies. Genuine Aztec mummies were "bundled" in a woven wrap and often had their faces covered by a ceremonial mask.
Natural mummification has been known to occur in several places in Mexico, though the most famous are the mummies of Guanajuato.
The museum claims to have the smallest mummy in the world on display a mummified fetus. Spirit Cave Man was discovered in during salvage work prior to guano mining activity that was scheduled to begin in the area.
The mummy is a middle-aged male, found completely dressed and lying on a blanket made of animal skin. Radiocarbon tests in the s dated the mummy to being nearly 9, years old.
The remains are currently held at the Nevada State Museum. There has been some controversy within the local Native American community, who began petitioning to have the remains returned and reburied in Mummies from the Oceania are not limited only to Australia.
Discoveries of mummified remains have also been located in New Zealand , and the Torres Strait ,  though these mummies have been historically harder to examine and classify.
The aboriginal mummification traditions found in Australia are thought be related to those found in the Torres Strait islands,  the inhabitants of which achieved a high level of sophisticated mummification techniques See: Australian mummies lack some of the technical ability of the Torres Strait mummies, however much of the ritual aspects of the mummification process are similar.
The reason for this seems to be for easier transport of bodies by more nomadic tribes. The mummies of the Torres Strait have a considerably higher level of preservation technique as well as creativity compared to those found on Australia.
In the case of smoking, some tribes would collect the fat that drained from the body to mix with ocher to create red paint that would then be smeared back on the skin of the mummy.
In the 19th Century, many of the trophies were acquired by Europeans who found the tattooed skin to be a phenomenal curiosity.
Westerners began to offer valuable commodities in exchange for the uniquely tattooed mummified heads. The heads were later put on display in museums, 16 of which being housed across France alone.
There is also evidence that some Maori tribes may have practiced full-body mummification, though the practice is not thought to have been widespread.
There is still controversy, however, as to the nature of the mummification process. Some bodies appear to be spontaneously created by the natural environment, while others exhibit signs of deliberate practices.
General modern consensus tends to agree that there could be a mixture of both types of mummification, similar to that of the ancient Egyptian mummies.
The South American continent contains some of the oldest mummies in the world, both deliberate and accidental.
The Pacific coastal desert in Peru and Chile is one of the driest areas in the world and the dryness facilitated mummification.
Rather than developing elaborate processes such as later-dynasty ancient Egyptians, the early South Americans often left their dead in naturally dry or frozen areas, though some did perform surgical preparation when mummification was intentional.
The bodies had often been wrapped for burial in finely-woven textiles. The Chinchorro mummies are the oldest intentionally prepared mummified bodies ever found.
Beginning in 5th millennium BC and continuing for an estimated 3, years,  all human burials within the Chinchorro culture were prepared for mummification.
The bodies were carefully prepared, beginning with removal of the internal organs and skin, before being left in the hot, dry climate of the Atacama Desert , which aided in desiccation.
Several naturally-preserved, unintentional mummies dating from the Incan period — AD have been found in the colder regions of Argentina , Chile , and Peru.
These are collectively known as "ice mummies". He was considered to be the most well-preserved ice mummy in the world until the discovery of Mummy Juanita in Mummy Juanita was discovered near the summit of Ampato in the Peruvian section of the Andes mountains by archaeologist Johan Reinhard.
Several Incan ceremonial artifacts and temporary shelters uncovered in the surrounding area seem to support this theory. More evidence that the Inca left sacrificial victims to die in the elements, and later be unintentionally preserved, came in with the discovery of the Llullaillaco mummies on the border of Argentina and Chile.
The bodies of Inca emperors and wives were mummified after death. In , the Spanish conquistadors of the Inca Empire viewed the mummies in the Inca capital of Cuzco.
The mummies were displayed, often in lifelike positions, in the palaces of the deceased emperors and had a retinue of servants to care for them.
The Spanish were impressed with the quality of the mummification which involved removal of the organs, embalming, and freeze-drying.
The population revered the mummies of the Inca emperors. This reverence seemed idolatry to the Roman Catholic Spanish and in they confiscated the mummies.
The mummies were taken to Lima where they were displayed in the San Andres Hospital. The mummies deteriorated in the humid climate of Lima and eventually they were either buried or destroyed by the Spanish.
An attempt to find the mummies of the Inca emperors beneath the San Andres hospital in was unsuccessful. The archaeologists found a crypt, but it was empty.
Possibly the mummies had been removed when the building was repaired after an earthquake. Monks whose bodies remain incorrupt without any traces of deliberate mummification are venerated by some Buddhists who believe they successfully were able to mortify their flesh to death.
Self-mummification was practiced until the late s in Japan and has been outlawed since the early s. Many Mahayana Buddhist monks were reported to know their time of death and left their last testaments and their students accordingly buried them sitting in lotus position , put into a vessel with drying agents such as wood, paper, or lime and surrounded by bricks, to be exhumed later, usually after three years.
The preserved bodies would then be decorated with paint and adorned with gold. Bodies purported to be those of self-mummified monks are exhibited in several Japanese shrines, and it has been claimed that the monks, prior to their death, stuck to a sparse diet made up of salt, nuts , seeds , roots , pine bark, and urushi tea.
In the s, Jeremy Bentham , the founder of utilitarianism , left instructions to be followed upon his death which led to the creation of a sort of modern-day mummy.
He asked that his body be displayed to illustrate how the "horror at dissection originates in ignorance"; once so displayed and lectured about, he asked that his body parts be preserved, including his skeleton minus his skull, which despite being mis-preserved, was displayed beneath his feet until theft required it to be stored elsewhere ,  which were to be dressed in the clothes he usually wore and "seated in a Chair usually occupied by me when living in the attitude in which I am sitting when engaged in thought".
His body, outfitted with a wax head created because of problems preparing it as Bentham requested, is on open display in the University College London.
During the early 20th century, the Russian movement of Cosmism , as represented by Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov , envisioned scientific resurrection of dead people.
In late 19th-century Venezuela, a German-born doctor named Gottfried Knoche conducted experiments in mummification at his laboratory in the forest near La Guaira.
He developed an embalming fluid based on an aluminum chloride compound that mummified corpses without having to remove the internal organs. The formula for his fluid was never revealed and has not been discovered.
Most of the several dozen mummies created with the fluid including himself and his immediate family have been lost or were severely damaged by vandals and looters.
In , an esoteric organization by the name of Summum introduced "Modern Mummification", a service that utilizes modern techniques along with aspects of ancient methods of mummification.
In , a team led by forensic archaeologist Stephen Buckley mummified Alan Billis using techniques based on 19 years of research of 18th-dynasty Egyptian mummification.
The process was filmed for television, for the documentary Mummifying Alan: Plastination is a technique used in anatomy to conserve bodies or body parts.
The water and fat are replaced by certain plastics, yielding specimens that can be touched, do not smell or decay, and even retain most microscopic properties of the original sample.
The technique was invented by Gunther von Hagens when working at the anatomical institute of the Heidelberg University in Von Hagens has patented the technique in several countries and is heavily involved in its promotion, especially as the creator and director of the Body Worlds traveling exhibitions,  exhibiting plastinated human bodies internationally.
He also founded and directs the Institute for Plastination in Heidelberg. More than 40 institutions worldwide have facilities for plastination, mainly for medical research and study, and most affiliated to the International Society for Plastination.
In the Middle Ages , based on a mistranslation from the Arabic term for bitumen, it was thought that mummies possessed healing properties. As a result, it became common practice to grind Egyptian mummies into a powder to be sold and used as medicine.
When actual mummies became unavailable, the sun-desiccated corpses of criminals, slaves and suicidal people were substituted by mendacious merchants.
Two centuries ago, mummies were still believed to have medicinal properties to stop bleeding, and were sold as pharmaceuticals in powdered form as in mellified man.
It was most popular in the 17th century, but was discontinued in the early 19th century when its composition became generally known to artists who replaced the said pigment by a totally different blend -but keeping the original name, mummia or mummy brown-yielding a similar tint and based on ground minerals oxides and fired earths and or blends of powdered gums and oleoresins such as myrrh and frankincense as well as ground bitumen.
These blends appeared on the market as forgeries of powdered mummy pigment but were ultimately considered as acceptable replacements, once antique mummies were no longer permitted to be destroyed.
During the 19th century, following the discovery of the first tombs and artifacts in Egypt, Egyptology was a huge fad in Europe, especially in Victorian England.
European aristocrats would occasionally entertain themselves by purchasing mummies, having them unwrapped, and holding observation sessions.
The use of mummies as fuel for locomotives was documented by Mark Twain likely as a joke or humor ,  but the truth of the story remains debatable.
During the American Civil War , mummy-wrapping linens were said to have been used to manufacture paper. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the preserved person or animal. For the maternal parent, see Mother. For the monster, see Mummy monster.
For other uses, see Mummy disambiguation. Ancient Egyptian burial customs. Remains of Salt Man 4 on display at Zanjan. Buddhist mummies and Sokushinbutsu.
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Modern mummies Animal mummy. At the same time, many burials used additional funerary texts, for instance the Amduat.
During the 25th and 26th dynasties , the Book of the Dead was updated, revised and standardised. Spells were consistently ordered and numbered for the first time.
In the Late period and Ptolemaic period , the Book of the Dead remained based on the Saite recension, though increasingly abbreviated towards the end of the Ptolemaic period.
The last use of the Book of the Dead was in the 1st century BCE, though some artistic motifs drawn from it were still in use in Roman times. The Book of the Dead is made up of a number of individual texts and their accompanying illustrations.
Most sub-texts begin with the word ro, which can mean "mouth," "speech," "spell," "utterance," "incantation," or "a chapter of a book.
At present, some spells are known,  though no single manuscript contains them all. They served a range of purposes. Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles.
Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual. Such spells as 26—30, and sometimes spells 6 and , relate to the heart and were inscribed on scarabs.
The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.
The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation;  there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.
Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth , and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful. Written words conveyed the full force of a spell.
The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life.
A number of spells are for magical amulets , which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.
Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value.
Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available. For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure.
The spells in the Book of the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife. The Book of the Dead is a vital source of information about Egyptian beliefs in this area.
One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperu , or modes of existence. Mummification served to preserve and transform the physical body into sah , an idealised form with divine aspects;  the Book of the Dead contained spells aimed at preserving the body of the deceased, which may have been recited during the process of mummification.
The ka , or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense.
In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell ensured the ka was satisfied. It was the ba , depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it.
An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods. The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.
In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat.
There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.
There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents.
While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required. For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti.
The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.
Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque. These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.
If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.
There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins ,  reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".
Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life.
Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".
This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content.
The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society.
For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.
A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased.
They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver,  perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.
In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.
Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead , there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman. The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m.
The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets.
Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later.
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